Implant prosthetics: types, methods of attachment
Modern dental clinics offer titanium implants. This is a strong, lightweight, non-toxic metal that “coexists” well with body tissues without causing the slightest discomfort throughout its life. The following prostheses are installed on the pin (one or several):
- non-removable (in case of loss of one, several teeth);
- conditionally removable (usually with a complete edentulous upper or lower dentition or loss of three or more elements).
Fixed prostheses on implants are crowns: metal, ceramic, cermet. The first ones are the cheapest, most durable (they last from 20 years), but they don’t fit on the “foundation” very accurately and look unattractive. Cermet serves less – up to 15 years. But such a crown cannot be distinguished from a real tooth: only the base is made of metal, the outer part is made of durable ceramic. Ceramic lining – the latest generation of crowns. They are expensive, but they look very natural and are suitable for replacing the front teeth. Conditionally removable prosthetics on implants implies the use of:
- Lamellar constructions (made of hard plastics, like the classic “false jaw”, but have a smaller size and method of attachment, and therefore are worn with comfort);
- Prosthetic segments (several teeth fixed to an artificial gum).
Only a doctor can remove them. They are fixed on implanted pins with micro locks with different types of fastening:
- Button. Abutments are attached to the pins (4 on the top or 2-3 on the bottom). In the prosthesis itself, recesses with silicone inserts are prepared for the abutments. When bonded, the silicone tightly covers the structure, ensuring a secure fit.
- Beam. A more convenient way, but costs more. A metal beam is attached to the 3-4 implants instead of the abutments, which ensures a more even distribution of the chewing load on the jaw.
Removable dentures are distinguished in a separate category, but they are not related to implants. These are the same plate constructions and clasp prostheses that are fixed to the patient’s healthy teeth. If there is no healthy support, they have to be put on the screws, and then they acquire the status of conditionally removable.
The installation of dentures on implants is recommended for people:
- Who have lost one, several or all teeth and want to fully restore their function.
- who want to avoid jaw bone atrophy.
- Patients who cannot use the removable prosthetics service due to the lack of supporting elements, constant discomfort due to improper distribution of chewing load on removable structures.
The procedure is not suitable for people with:
- oncological diseases;
- with exacerbation of diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- bleeding disorders;
- insufficient thickness of the bone tissue (can be corrected by sinus lift);
- some diseases of the central nervous system;
- acute inflammation in the oral cavity.
Pros, cons of technology
Advantages of conditionally removable, fixed prosthetics on implants:
- no need to grind healthy teeth for installation;
- a variety of pins allows you to fix complex defects to people of any age;
- “new teeth” do not need specific care;
- secure hold when eating, talking;
- during operation, there is no atrophy of the bone tissue of the jaw, since the load from chewing is distributed as if you used your own teeth;
- one hundred percent restoration of a smile, comfortable chewing, lack of a metallic taste – you quickly get used to such prostheses.
The negative aspects of dentures on implants include the long term of the entire event (from three months to six months). Most of it falls on the healing of tissues after implantation. The high cost of the procedure is also highlighted. But she is fully justified, given the impressive list of advantages.
Remember: Implantation is a serious surgical procedure. The operation must be performed by a qualified, experienced surgeon. Such specialists work in the center “Dudko and Sons” in Minsk. They will conduct a thorough examination, tell you about all the intricacies of the procedure, and offer the most suitable solutions to your problem.