Bone grafting is necessary at damage or atrophy of the jaw. A defect occurs with mechanical trauma, tooth extraction, inflammatory diseases, the appearance of excessive or insufficient load on the jaw, extensive surgery with the removal of tumours, age-related changes. Such damage can cause aesthetic as well as functional inconvenience.
The formation of a new bone is carried out due to: cells of the lining of the bone bed, elements of connective tissue and autograft. Over time, the artificial material is physiologically reconstructed, the formation of its bone is stimulated.
Bone grafting begins with an examination, diagnosis of the defect. After which the doctor identifies all contraindications to the procedure. Depending on the desired result and the clinical picture, the optimal method for the operation is selected:
- Allotransplantation. Planting another person’s material. The graft is pre-cleaned to eliminate the risk of rejection.
- Xenotransplantation. Recovery through an identical component of animal origin.
- Autotransplantation. Transplanting your tissue. The most effective method due to the use of natural material. In this way, you can restore any volume.
A dentist or maxillofacial specialist decides on how to carry out the procedure. To make a decision, you must provide an X-ray or 3D tomography of the teeth.
- Oncological and autoimmune diseases.
- Disorders of the circulatory system.
- An aggravated form of chronic disease.
- Pregnancy and the period of active lactation.
- The presence of inflammatory processes of the mucous membrane of the mouth and nasopharynx.
- Anaesthesia by injection.
- Cleaning the operating site of soft tissues. A few neat cuts are made with a scalpel.
- Transplantation material is transplanted. The remaining space is filled with bone crumbs.
- A barrier membrane is applied on top, which provides reliable fixation. It can be either self-absorbable or not.
- The mucous membrane is sutured.
- About six months is necessary for the formation of a bone in the place of replanting.
Bone grafting during implants of teeth
The procedure is prescribed if the height of the bone of the upper jaw is insufficient for reliable fixation of the implant. The minimum abutment height is 10 mm. The transplant sits in the region of the maxillary sinuses. The operation is called the sinus lift. The cost of bone grafting during dental implants is not included in the price of implantology.
There is also the option of preserving the well after tooth extraction. Thus, the volume of the alveolar ridge is protected, wound infection is excluded, and a stable position of neighbouring elements of the row is also ensured.
There are no strict age restrictions; only the general state of health and the oral cavity is taken into account. Do not be afraid of such surgical intervention. Modern medicine has achieved minimal trauma. And the effectiveness has been proven more than once by specialists from all over the world.