Materials dental implants must meet strict requirements: strength, biocompatibility. The first property is responsible for long-term use: modern companies guarantee 7-10 years of trouble-free service.
As for the screw, it can last even longer. Only the upper crown part can be replaced. Biological compatibility with surrounding tissues stimulates osteogenesis: the body accepts a foreign body.
Most manufacturers of dental equipment are constantly improving production methods. Develops new processing technologies, implant forms, use different impurities. The most popular material for the production of systems is titanium: it accounts for 75% of the total market. Another 15% is zirconium oxide. The remaining 10% falls on zirconium metal alloys.
The priority positions of titanium in this area are quite justified. The surface density of this material prevents the occurrence of corrosion, leading to inflammatory processes in the surrounding tissues. This property has a positive effect on durability and wear. Technical characteristics make titanium ductile, suitable for the production of implants of various shapes. Unfortunately, his independent strength is not very high. Therefore, it is supplemented with aluminum or vanadium, which are harmless to the body. This neighborhood also has a negative side: longevity indicators are reduced. To overcome such inconveniences, a new approach was developed: nanostructuring by methods of intensive plastic deformation. This leads to an increase in mechanical strength, enhances osseointegration. However, the production method is expensive, which greatly increases the cost of the finished product.
Comparison table for modern implants
|Alpha Bio||Grade 5||+||+|
|Nobel Biocare||Grade 1||+||–|
Implants from zirconia have been successful in implantation of the front teeth. It has a white color and does not shine through the gum. It has a strength comparable to natural bone tissue, and biocompatibility is at a good level. There is one drawback: expensive production. Accordingly, the price of such implants will be much higher. You have to pay for beauty. In recent years, there has been a tendency to reduce manufacturing costs, but the cost is still high.
Material for implant crowns
The most popular are ceramics and cermets. They are used due to the strong external similarity with the natural bone tissue of teeth. The addition of metal increases the mechanical strength, but at the same time worsens the appearance: it is possible to see through the metal. Therefore, this option is better suited for posterior, chewing teeth. The front ones should be replaced with ceramic ones. They are more durable, but their cost is higher. Most often, the choice in favor of some material during implantation is made primarily taking into account the installation site of the implant.