Is basal implantation an obsolete method?Today we can safely say that basal implantation does not meet modern techniques and principles of dental implantology, since this technique was developed back in the 60s of the last century, when the fact of implant placement was already considered an achievement. Many domestic and Western dentists consider it to be obsolete, largely ineffective and barbaric, since when installing an implant, severe trauma to both soft gum tissue and hard jaw bone tissue occurs. In addition, there is a huge risk of developing peri-implantitis (implant rejection), the prosthesis itself is considered ineffective.
The essence of the basal implantation methodWhen implanted with basal implants, a lamellar structure of impressive size is implanted in the lateral surface of the jaw bone. Therefore, an operation can only be performed if the patient does not have at least three teeth in a row, since the implant requires a sufficiently large space in the bone.
DiagnosticsThe implant dentist examines the oral cavity, evaluates the condition of the soft tissues and the size of the alveolar ridge, performs all the necessary examinations (CT , X-ray), including a blood test.
3D modelingThe doctor models the location of the implants in the oral cavity. For this, the implant surgeon uses software to help avoid errors in the work. On the simulated samples creates a mouthpiece with holes.
ImplantationAt this stage, the patient is given a sedative drug, he is immersed in a medical sleep, and the doctor proceeds to implant the implant. After installation, the pin is strengthened with bone tissue and all soft tissue around is sutured.
ProstheticsFor basal implantation use temporary and fixed structures. The prosthesis is fixed on the abutment with subsequent correction of the angle of inclination. For primary prosthetics, the doctor sets up a flexible gum made of acrylic and plastic crowns with cement fixation. After 5-8 months (in some clinical cases, the term increases to 12 months), the dentist changes the temporary prosthesis to permanent teeth from cermets , although the design itself may be acrylic with metal reinforcement.
Types of basal implantsThere are several types of implants that are installed in the basal layer of the jaw bone:
- Disk basal implants. This is the very first species that was intended for implantation in the cortical bone. They were named so for their characteristic shape resembling a disk. To install such implants, it is necessary to exfoliate the mucous membrane, and then cut out the bone in order to implant them. The procedure is very traumatic and requires a long recovery after surgery. In addition, it is impossible to accurately predict the final result, the probability of rejection and development of peri-implantitis is high. Therefore, if the dentist offers to install such an implant, the best solution would be to refuse.
- Modern basal implants. Classic basal implants are elongated titanium conical pins. They are longer than usual for the reason that they are installed in the basal layer of the bone. Another feature of them – the body of the implant and the abutment (the adapter on which the prosthesis is attached) are one. Modern basal implants often have a more pronounced thread, which simplifies their installation.
- Compression implant. This is an alternative. They are simultaneously implanted in the spongy and cortical bone. Due to the special compression thread around the implant, dense bone tissue is formed. This type of implant is very often used for single prosthetics and only if the patient has, at least minimally, the presence of a trabecular bone in the installation site.
- Zygomatic implants. A variety of basal implants, which are a product of medical titanium up to 60 mm long. They are used for prosthetics of the upper jaw, mainly when using the All-on-4/6 protocol, and are implanted into the zygomatic bone at an angle of 30-60 degrees, which gives the necessary additional stability to the prosthesis.
Advantages and disadvantages of basal implantationBefore you sit in the dentist’s chair, you must carefully study the chosen method of implantation and the experience of the doctors you are contacting. A professional implant surgeon will tell you about all the features, stages and possible complications of the upcoming operation. It must be remembered that any surgical intervention does not pass unnoticed by the body and has both advantages and disadvantages.
- Implantation is possible even with complete atrophy of the cancellous bone;
- Implantation has a relatively small number of contraindications;
- In some clinical cases, the installation of a permanent prosthesis is possible already 3-4 days after the operation;
- Suitable for the elderly and heavy smokers.
- The technique belongs to the category of complex operations. A dentist performing an implantation of basal implants must have many years of installation experience and have the skills of a maxillofacial surgeon;
- High degree of injury and a long recovery period (up to 4-6 months);
- High risk of rejection, inflammation and peri-implantitis;
- The cost of implantation is quite high, it is on par with the classical technique;
- The service is provided by a small number of clinics. Therefore, if you decide on basal implantation, there is still a chance to get to the “wrong” dental center and the “wrong” implantologist.