What is CAD/CAM technology? This is an automatic programming system that includes subsystems:
- CAD (Design using computer technology)
Design using computer technology is the use of computer systems for the design and development of a product. The computer is used as an advanced substitute for the “culman” (drawing board), which allows you to perform three-dimensional modeling and design, without resorting to the use of pen and ink. A model created in such a system can be shown at any angle, and can also be modeled to consider its projection in certain lighting conditions. Individual elements of the drawing can be revised, replaced, and the entire model as a whole – rebuilt again. After the project has been finalized, it can be transferred to the machines manufacturing this part.
Thanks to the CAD system, you can evaluate the consequences of any changes in the model before it is made.
- CAM (Manufacturing using computer technology)
Computer-assisted manufacturing is the use of computer systems to control power tools. This allows you to give the materials a certain shape in order to create constructions and devices from them. Computers that control power tools can act in accordance with instructions received from a computer-aided design system. Thus, a complete integrated system arises. The object that needs to be made is constructed on a computer screen, after which the project is realized by a computer, transmitting its instructions directly to mechanized tools.
For many years, CAD/CAM systems have found application only in various industries, especially in the automotive industry. Now, such technologies find many diverse applications in medicine and dentistry.
Previously, dentistry was limited to a certain range of available manufacturing techniques. This very tightly limited the range of materials that could be used. Giving us a new technique for controlling the shape of an object, CAD/CAM systems in dentistry provide access to entire systems of new materials.
CAD/CAM technology in dentistry makes it possible to use ceramic materials with very good characteristics and composite materials based on a glass binder, which were produced under optimal factory conditions, subject to the necessary technological characteristics. Such materials have huge advantages over those that are used traditionally.
In the traditional manufacture of cast crowns, the patient experienced discomfort when creating impressions, and situations could arise where the crown did not fit exactly in shape. In addition, the manufacturing time of the prosthesis took on average 2-3 days, during which the patient remained with his teeth turned open. The use of CAD-CAM technology made it possible to produce prostheses more precisely and better than those made by casting, as well as much faster – the number of visits to the dentist is reduced to one. In this case, the patient can personally observe the manufacture of the prosthesis.
Advantages of CAD-CAM systems:
- Creation of constructions of any shape and complexity;
- Lack of discomfort when scanning the oral cavity;
- Fast production of orthopedic structures;
- Ability to create products from various materials;
- High-precision computer technology allows you to create models with an accuracy of 25 microns.
CAD-CAM technology is suitable for creating integral ceramic and metal fixed prostheses: crowns, veneers, abutments, etc. This method is free from the drawbacks of previous technologies: shrinkage, deformation, overheating of metal, the presence of pores and non-spilled areas.
Stages of creating dentures:
- Preparation for prosthetics (oral hygiene, preparation of supporting teeth);
- Scanning of the oral cavity;
- Computer 3D-modeling of the prosthesis;
- Automatic turning on a milling machine;
- Sintering and grinding.